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Full text of "Circuits"

Hot/Cold LEDs 



Make] Projects 



Hot/Cold LEDs 

Written By: Julius Schmiedel 



PARTS: 

Arduino Uno Board (1) 

from RadioShack. 

USB cabled) 

from RadioShack. 

Parallax 'Ping' Sensor (1) 

from RadioShack. 

Breadboard Jumper Wires (1) 

Carbon-film resistor assortment pack (1) 

from RadioShack. 

Super-bright Blue LED (1) 

from RadioShack. 

Super-bright Red LED M) 

from RadioShack. 

Resistor. 56Q. 1/4WM) 

from RadioShack. 

Resistor. 150Q. 1/4W(1) 

from RadioShack. 



SUMMARY 



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Hot/Cold LEDs 



In this project, we will combine an Arduino, a Ping sensor, and a small assortment of 
components, to build a project that senses distances as "hot/cold." Once built, we'll walk 
through the software running our basic "sketch," (what an Arduino program is called) and 
then experiment with variations of the "hot/cold" theme, all the while using the same circuit. 

For the Arduino sketch files provided, the V1 sketch is detailed below. It measures distance 
from the sensor. The farther you are from the sensor, the "cold" blue LED begins to glow, 
and then the closer you get to the sensor, the "cold" LED fades away and the "hot" red LED 
turns up to full brightness! 

The V2 sketch is a "capture the ping" game. At first, the "cold" blue LED glows, and every so 
often, the "hot" red LED will flash. When the red LED is on, try to move your hand in front of 
the sensor quickly. If you are fast enough, the red LED will flash; if you are too slow (or 
cheat!), the blue LED will flash. 

And finally, the V3 sketch is a simple "hot/cold" switch. When no object is present in front of 
the sensor, the "cold" blue LED will produce a slow pulse. When it does sense an object, say 
when you sit down in front of your computer, the "cold" blue LED will turn off and the "hot" 
red one will shine at full brightness. This switch can be used to trigger other effects, such as 
waking your computer up from sleep mode. 



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Hot/Cold LEDs 



Step 1 — Gather all your components. 






& 



• Believe it or not, these are all the parts you will require for this build! 

• NOTE: Resistors listed in subsequent steps are for the LEDs suggested in the 
parts list. If you want to use different LEDs, you'll have to calculate the resistor 
required using Ohm's Law. Search online for "LED calculator" to determine the resistor 
needed. The 500-pack of resistors is recommended so you always have a range of options 
available. 

• First, connect the breadboard to the Arduino. Using two jumper wires: connect one wire 
from the 5V pin on the Arduino to the power rail on the breadboard. Have the other go from 
the GND pin to the ground rail. 

• Take a look at the Ping sensor. You'll notice three pins next to each other, labeled GND, 
5V, and Sig (as in "Signal"). Now, let's wire up the connections necessary to supply power, 
ground, and signal to the Ping Sensor. 

• Decide where you want your Ping sensor located on the breadboard. Make a connection 
between the ground rail and the sensor's GND pin row. Add another wire between the 
power rail and the sensor's 5V pin row. Alternatively, you could use short pieces of 20 
AWG hookup wire. 

• Lastly, make a connection between the Ping sensor's Sig(nal) pin row, and the Arduino pin 
labeled number 7. This connection will work in two directions: It will be used to send the 
"ping" from the sensor, and also transmit the signal coming back from an object in front of 
the sensor. 



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Hot/Cold LEDs 



Step 2 — Place the Ping sensor. 




• Place the Ping sensor on the board so that the connections line up with the wires you just 
placed. Carefully check to ensure all the connections are correct. Trace the connection 
from the Arduino GND pin to the ground rail, to the GND pin on the Ping sensor. Do the 
same for the supply voltage. 

• Next, use two jumper wires which will eventually connect the LEDs to the Arduino. Place a 
wire from the Arduino pin 6 to the row where you want to place your blue LED. Do the 
same for the row intended for the red LED, and connect it to the Arduino pin 5. 

• If you're curious about why I left two rows empty in-between the two jumper wires 
on the breadboard, that's because we need a resistor for each LED (see next step 

for details). The resistor values are calculated by using the rated voltage and current of the 
LED, and the voltage supplied, and Ohm's Law. 



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Hot/Cold LEDs 



Step 3 — Connect the LEDs and resistors. 






• First, take the 150Q resistor (brown-green-brown) and make a connection between the 
ground rail and the row next to the row connected to pin 5 (driving the red LED). Using the 
56Q resistor (green-blue-black), do the same for the blue LED, connecting the ground rail 
and the row next to the one connected to pin 6 on the Arduino. 

• All we need to do now is connect our LEDs to the board. Since LEDs, like all diodes, work 
only in one direction, you have to make sure to place them so the shorter leg, called 
cathode, is connected to GND through the resistor. The "positive" side, called anode, has 
the longer leg and will be connected to the Arduino via a jumper wire. 

• Place the red LED so the shorter leg will be connected to the resistor, and the longer leg 
goes in the row which is connected to pin 5. Do the same for the blue LED, connecting its 
cathode to the resistor, and the anode to the row going to pin 6 of your Arduino. 

• A simple visual check now will save time in the future. Trace the connections to 
make sure everything is in its designated place. Once you're ready to load the 
software sketches, continue to the next step. 



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Hot/Cold LEDs 



Step 4 — Watch them glow! 






a 



• When everything looks okay, we're done building the hardware part of our project. Now, 
fire up your computer. If this is your first Arduino build, download the Arduino Software 
from http://arduino.cc 

• A lot of makers use the blink tutorial for their first build. It's a great primer for 
understanding the Arduino SDK, or software development kit: 
http://arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/blink 

• Start the Arduino Software, and download the Hot/Cold sketch files for this project . Begin 
with the V1 sketch, which is a "hot/cold" proximity sketch. Hit the Upload button in the 
Arduino software and the sketch will compile. 

• Use your hand or an object to quickly test the Ping sensor and see how it works. Now that 
the hardware of your Hot/Cold LEDs is working, we will take a look at the code in the 
subsequent steps. 

• The V2 & V3 sketches are additional programs that use the same Arduino and 
breadboard hardware configuration to produce variations of the "hot/cold" theme. 
Once you understand the V1 sketch, upload the V2 & V3 sketches and experiment with 
them. Then, build your own hot/cold project! 







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Hot/Cold LEDs 



Step 5 — Calculate the "ping" time. 




• The first lines of code are a basic 
configuration: declare the pins used 
for the sensor and the LEDs, 
measure the "distance" which will 
be used to store the distance (in 
cm), and determine the 
"pulseDuration" which stores the 
time it takes between sending the 
ping and receiving it again by the 
sensor. 

• In the "loop()" - the main program 
being run by the Arduino - you can 
see the three steps used to 
measure the distance of an object 
from the sensor. First, it sets the 
SensorPin to output and emits a 5 
microsecond long impulse, the 
ping. Then, the SensorPin gets 
switched to input, and the program 
counts the time for the ping to 
return. 

• The "pulseDuration" first gets 
divided by two, because we 
measure the time the ping takes 
going from and back to the sensor. 
Then it gets divided by 29. Why 
29? Our measurement is in 
microseconds, and sound travels 
at 1cm per 29 microseconds . 



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Hot/Cold LEDs 



Step 6 — The Red LED code. 




• Given the distance from an object, 
the program calculates output for 
the LEDs. First, let's take a look at 
the code driving the red LED. 

• The Parallax Ping Sensor 
can measure distances up 

to 300cm, but we will be restricting 
the device (in software) to measure 
between 0-50cm. 

• The red LED will light up starting at 
25cm, and will increase to full 
brightness at 0cm. First, we check 
if the object is within 25cm. If true, 
we need to translate the distance of 
25-0cm into an integer value 
between and 255, which 
determines the brightness of the 
LED. 

• Don't let the similar 
numbers confuse you. The 
value 255 is considered "always 
on" to the Arduino, whereas is 
considered "off." The measurement 
and brightness intensity operate so 
that >25cm=0 and 0cm=255. 



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Hot/Cold LEDs 



Step 7 — The Blue LED code. 




• For the blue LED, it's a bit more 
complex. Since it should light up 
between 50-25cm, but fade out 
between 25-1 Ocm, we need to add 
an additional "if" statement to the 
code. Again, there is calculation to 
translate the distance of 10-25cm 
into an integer value between and 
255. 

• Then we do another translation for 
the case of distance being between 
25 and 50cm. This time, an input 
between 25 and 50 gets translated 
into an integer between 255 and 0, 
respectively. 

• If the Distance is not within 
the two specified ranges in 
the "if" and "else if" statements 
above, the blue LED is "0," or "off". 



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Hot/Cold LEDs 



Step 8 — Experiment with Hot/Cold 



2 



• The last instruction is a "delay()" of 
20 milliseconds, which gives us 
approximately 50 loops per second. 
This could be called the polling 
interval, or refresh rate, for our 
code. 

• Since it takes some time to 
execute the instructions in 
our loop, the actual rate is slightly 
lower, but there are still plenty of 
updates per second to trick the 
human eye. 

• The V2 and V3 sketches provide 
other examples of how to turn this 
exact same circuit configuration 
into another project, including a 
"capture the ping" game and a 
"hot/cold" on/off switch. Just 
download the sketches, open them 
in the Arduino Software, and upload 
them! (Comments in the sketches 
tell you exactly what they do.) 

• Now that you know all about the 
hardware and software for this 
build, you should hack, modify, and 
improve Hot/Cold LEDs by turning 
it into your own project! 



This document was last generated on 2012-12-20 01 :12:22 PM. 



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